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International Journal of Pediatrics and Neonatology

Vol. 6, Issue 1, Part A (2024)

Neonatal disease presentations at a newly developed center in an LMIC: Insights from the spectrum of illness at SICHN

Author(s):

Misbah Iqbal Hanif, Sher Wali Khan, Syed Rehan Ali and Syed Jamal Raza

Abstract:

Objective: To report the pattern of disease among neonates admitted to the NICU and successfully discharged after follow-up.
Methodology: This is an observational study conducted at the newly developed 200-bed Sindh Institute of Child Health and Neonatology between September 2022 and February 2023. A retrospective analysis was done to evaluate the causes of neonatal admissions and their outcomes. A statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23.
Results: During the period of study, a total of 680 patients were admitted, and 586 were discharged after recovery on follow-up at the NICU of the Sindh Institute of Child Health and Neonatology. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) was found to be the most common diagnosis among the patients who were successfully discharged after treatment with a total of 273 cases (19%), followed by preterm/low birth weight with 234 cases (16.3%), sepsis with 199 cases (13.9%), pneumonia with 115 cases (8%), neonatal jaundice with 92 cases (6.4%), meconium aspiration syndrome with 73 cases (5.1%), bacterial meningitis with 65 cases (4.5%), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with 51 cases (3.6%), congenital heart defects with 24 cases (1.7%), acute gastroenteritis with 12 cases (0.8%), hypoglycemia with 12 cases (0.8%), anemia with 8 cases (0.6%), bronchiolitis with 6 cases (0.4%), transient tachypnea of newborn with 4 cases (0.3%), syndromic babies with 4 cases (0.3%), achondroplasia with 3 cases (0.2%), atresia of the esophagus with 3 cases (0.2%), and trisomies (18 and 21) with 3 cases (0.2%) and others. Out of 680 admissions, 94 referral neonates with bacterial sepsis, severe septic shock, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies, and respiratory distress syndrome could not survive. Of those neonates who died, 42 (27.6%) had a low birth weight and were born prematurely.
Conclusion: Severe sepsis, prematurity, or low birth weight, along with respiratory distress, were the primary causes of neonatal death in our experience. Early interventions that focus on neonatal health, along with access to good-quality care, are essential to reducing the rate of neonatal admission.
 

Pages: 14-17  |  96 Views  33 Downloads

How to cite this article:
Misbah Iqbal Hanif, Sher Wali Khan, Syed Rehan Ali and Syed Jamal Raza. Neonatal disease presentations at a newly developed center in an LMIC: Insights from the spectrum of illness at SICHN. Int. J. Pediatr. Neonatology 2024;6(1):14-17. DOI: 10.33545/26648350.2024.v6.i1a.63
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International Journal of Pediatrics and Neonatology