Mohammed Abdullah Algossadi, Walid Abdel Wahab Eid, Renad Mohammed Alshehri, Reema Mohammed Alshehri and Abdulaziz Mohammed Alshehri
Background: Maternal diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including anatomical malformations such as congenital heart defects (CHD).
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of CHD in babies born to mothers with pre-existing or gestational diabetes.
Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of all births of type 1, type 2 diabetic mothers, gestational diabetic mothers, and non-diabetic mothers admitted to the newborn nursery and the neonatal intensive care unit between July 2011 and June 2022 was performed.
Results: A total of 2079 mothers and their offspring were enrolled in the study. Of 2079 mothers 1397 (67.2%) were non-diabetic and 682 (32.8%) were diabetic. In terms of diabetic status, the incidence of cardiovascular anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers is significantly higher than the infants of non-diabetic mothers (p<0.0001). The most frequent echocardiographic findings were patent ductus arteriosus (38.3%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (37.1%), and ventricular septal defect (32.7%).
Conclusions: The incidence of CHD in infants of diabetic mothers is significantly higher than in infants of non-diabetic mothers. Screening diabetic mothers for fetal cardiac malformations seems highly advisable in such cases.
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